Tunneling Shields

Tunneling shields are used in the excavation of tunnels through soft ground, especially under rivers or in water-bearing strata, to prevent the tunnels from collapsing before they are reinforced with concrete, cast iron, or steel support structures. The Thames Tunnel project in 1825 was the first in which a tunneling shield was used. Designed by Sir Marc Brunel, the device was considered unsuccessful and was not employed again until 1870, after what crucial improvement was made? Discuss

Source: The Free Dictionary

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