Philip II of Macedon

Philip II was king of Macedonia from 359 to 336 BCE. He was originally appointed regent for his nephew but seized the throne for himself, ruthlessly suppressing all opposition. After reorganizing his army and training it in the effective Theban phalanx formation, he launched an ambitious program of expansion by conquest and diplomacy. In 338 BCE, Philip defeated Athens and Thebes, becoming leader of all of Greece and creating a league of states united against Persia. Who was Philip’s famous son? Discuss

Source: The Free Dictionary

Ember Days

The Ember Days occur four times a year, at the beginning of each of the natural seasons. Traditionally they are marked by three days of fasting and abstinence—the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday following, respectively, Ash Wednesday, Pentecost, Exaltation of the Cross, and St. Lucy’s Day. In 1966, the Roman Catholic Church replaced them with days of prayer for various needs and withdrew the obligation to fast. The Anglican Communion still observes them. In the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, since the sixth century, priests have been ordained on an Ember Saturday. Discuss

Source: The Free Dictionary

Gran Colombia

Gran Columbia was a South American republic from 1819 to 1830. It encompassed much of northern South America and southern Central America, including parts of Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador, which became its successor states after its dissolution. With its capital at Bogotá, it was created during the war for independence from Spain by revolutionary leader Simón Bolívar, who served as its first president. Its existence was marked by a struggle between supporters of what two types of government? Discuss

Source: The Free Dictionary

The Fauxhawk

In the early 1980s, the hairstyle known as the mohawk—named after the Native American tribe of the same name–became popular among young people in the punk subculture. The look is achieved by shaving both sides of the head and leaving a strip of hair on the crest of the scalp. Decades later, the fauxhawk was introduced. A portmanteau of faux—meaning fake—and mohawk, the hairstyle is created without shaving the hair on the sides of the head. What celebrities helped to popularize the fauxhawk? Discuss

Source: The Free Dictionary

Commonwealth Day

From 1903 until 1957, this holiday in honor of the British Empire was known as Empire Day and celebrated on May 24, Queen Victoria‘s birthday. Between 1958 and 1966, it was called British Commonwealth Day. Then it was switched to Queen Elizabeth II‘s official birthday in June, and the name was shortened to Commonwealth Day. It is now observed annually on the second Monday in March. In Canada it is still celebrated on May 24 (or the Monday before) and referred to as Victoria Day. Discuss

Source: The Free Dictionary

"Boss" Tweed

William Tweed was a US politician, now famous for his corruption, who in the 1850s gained influence in the Democratic political machine known as Tammany Hall and used it to obtain leading positions in New York City government. He appointed political cronies to key posts and gained control of the city’s treasury, from which he plundered as much as $200 million. Exposure by the press eventually led to his conviction and imprisonment, but he escaped and fled to Spain. What led to his recapture? Discuss

Source: The Free Dictionary